The discharge or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles via space or through a material medium is known as radiation. There exist many types of radiation in this universe. Some radiations are harmful and some are useful. Radiation is categorized as ionizing or non-ionizing based on the energy of the radiated particles. Various Types of Radiations are:
- Electromagnetic radiation
- Particle radiation – alpha radiation, beta radiation, and neutron radiation
- Acoustic radiation – seismic waves, ultrasound, and sound waves
- Gravitational radiation
Radiation includes UV radiation, microwaves, X-rays, Normal light, sunlight, gamma rays, and many more. These radiations are classified under electromagnetic radiation and are organized according to their source and effects.
Electromagnetic radiation features waves that travel in the electromagnetic field carrying the electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic radiation is discharged by electrically charged particles that are continuously under motion. These electromagnetic waves interact with other charged particles, applying force on them. When the electric fields and magnetic fields are at an angle of 90 degrees to each other, the combined waves travel in a perpendicular pattern to both magnetic and electric fields. Electromagnetic radiation transfers momentum, energy and angular momentum from their source particle and has the strength to impart these qualities to the matter they interact with.
Sunlight is one of the most treasured and seamless natural forms of radiation. Ultraviolet radiations which come under Lower frequency radiations are used to treat various health diseases. Radiation at a very high and intense frequency in the range of 1000 to 5000 rems will influence the functioning of the heart. Extreme hair fall problem is seen when exposed to radiation higher than 200 rems. A moderate quantity of X-ray is also used to diagnose different serious diseases and defects in the human body. High-frequency radiation damages living tissue by damaging DNA and changing cell structure. The higher the radiation dosage, more is the chance of developing the deadly disease like cancer.
The linear accelerator is a revolutionary medical invention that generates specific high energy x-rays or electrons to conform to a tumor’s shape. It is also used for eradicating the cancerous cells without damaging the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. The linear accelerator includes several built-in safety measures to ensure that it will deliver the prescribed dose by a medical physicist. A linear accelerator is used for medicinal purposes in radiation therapy. This device also acts as particle injectors and is used directly to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles.
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